ADD / ADHD

6 June 2016

ADHD by definition is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This is quite common psychiatric disease across the world. According to available literature an approximated 5 percent of children over the globe are victims of ADHD. In addition, the article claims that at least 30 percent of those diagnosed with this disorder still experience it at their adulthood.

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Further, the disorder is identified about two to four times in boy than is in girls (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010). However, these discrepancies have been blamed from bias refereeing by teachers. This paper is written as a discussion of ADHD. The author will in particular look at the symptoms, causes, and treatments of this psychiatric disorder. The actual cause of ADHD is not known. Nevertheless, numerous risk factors have been associated with the disorder. First, ADHD can be caused by genetic factors (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010). Available information show that an estimated over 70 percent of all ADHD cases are due to genetics factors.

Research findings have it that ADHD is mainly caused by a combination of genes. Such include α2A adrenergic receptor, dopamine transporter, dopamine receptors D2/D3, dopamine beta-hydroxylase monoamine oxidase A, catecholamine-methyl transferase, serotonin transporter promoter (SLC6A4), 5HT2A receptor, 5HT1B receptor, the 10-repeat allele of the DAT1 gene, the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene, and the dopamine beta hydroxylase gene (DBH TaqI) (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010).

It is however worthy noting that this disease does not follow the normal genetic disease analysis model. ADHD has also been claimed to be caused by adaptive behavior according to the evolutionary theory as proposed by Thom Hartmann. As per the theory, victims of this disorder are more equipped to seek than to stay put overtime.

Another cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is non-shared environmental factors such as alcoholism and tobacco smoking (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010). This factor still encompasses social relation issues with the young members of the community. In addition, diet has also been closely associated with ADHD. According to research findings by the Southampton University in the United Kingdom, there is a potential link between ADHD and the use of artificial food colors among kids. Victims of ADHD are marked with numerous symptoms.

True from available statistics, these victims have inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness as their main identifying characteristics (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010). Among the young, this type of disorder is portrayed by the ease to be distracted and failure to focus on one thing.

Moreover, ADHD victims are prone to hyper-reaction to normal happenings in life. Such are indeed are direct result to their failure in accomplishing their academic endeavors. Further, ADHD can be witnessed in children who have much daydreaming, moving slowly and are easily confused in life. Management of ADHD has proved to be the most cost effective medical practice. Nevertheless, numerous research findings have shown that the condition can be reliably controlled by the use of stimulant medication.

It is worth noting that amphetamine methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall), dextromethamphetamine (Desoxyn) and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) are the most commonly used types of stimulants in controlling ADHD (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010).

However, it is advisable for medical practitioners to take into consideration the addictive nature of medications aimed at increasing the level of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. This is due to the fact that such medications are quite addictive, a factor that creates more problems to the victim (Council for Exceptional Children, 2010). Therefore, ADHD can be effectively managed to allow the victim lead a sustainable life. This is nevertheless more reliable when the condition is diagnosed at early stages of life.

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